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          瓦力工廠少兒編程

          雅思大作文詞匯的高效學習方法

           
          雅思大作文的詞匯量一直是很多考生的心病,尤其對于目標分數7分及以上的同學。很多同學也會在考前花費大量的時間和精力背誦詞匯,但效果卻不盡如人意。很多考生反映:在考場上,考前所背的詞匯很少用到或者有一些詞考場上根本來不及反映,但考試之后卻又突然想起。
           
          原則一:話題詞匯記憶優于首字母排序的記憶
           
          例如:
           
           
          Some people argue that students learn more effectively when they studying in groups than studying alone.
           
          Discuss benefits of both and give your opinion.
           
          從題目中的“students”, “learn”, “studying in groups”, “studying alone”可以很快知道這是一篇教育類話題的作文,關鍵詞是“studying in groups”, “studying alone”, 分析兩種學習方式的好處。按照話題分類背誦詞匯,就可以幫助我們快速聯想到教育類的相關詞匯、詞組,如:impart knowledge; instill; compete; poor academic performance; self-discipline; distract; highly motivated; creative thinking; aptitude; dampen the students’ enthusiasm等。
           
          例如:
           
           
          The environment problems facing today’s world are so great that there is little ordinary people can do to improve the situation. Government and large companies should be responsible for reducing the amount of damage being done to the environment.
           
          To what extent do you agree or disagree?
           
          從題目中的“the environment problems”, “the amount of damage”, “the environment”可以確定這是一篇環境類話題的作文,主要討論的是環境問題應該由誰來解決的問題。如果考生有提前準備充足的環境類話題詞匯的話,就可以在審題之后有的放矢,游刃有余,快速回憶出相關詞匯,如:emission, poisonous, pollutant, waste fuel, a livable environment, sustainable development, environmentally conscious citizens, clean technology, disposable products, harmful substance, recycle, eco-friendly等。
           
          例如:
           
           
          Some people think the increasing business and cultural contact between countries brings many positive effects. Others say it causes the loss of national identities.
           
          Discuss on both sides and give your own opinion.
           
          從題目中的“business and cultural contact”可以知道這是一篇關于文化旅游類話題的作文,所以就需要考生們掌握一些相關的詞匯,如cultural insights, has its value, inspiration, scope of knowledge, break with old customs等。
           
          所以廣大考生在雅思學習的過程中可以按照重點話題分類,快速積累大量的詞匯、詞組,這樣能幫助我們在寫作時,快速準確地回憶起相關詞匯,節約大量的時間,從而可以在整個寫作過程中妙筆生花。
           
          原則二:短語記憶優于詞匯記憶
           
          傳統的單詞記憶方法(按首字母順序背誦),僅僅是掌握了一個單詞的拼寫及其所對應的中文意思,然而寫作考試并不是簡單的中翻英,詞匯的堆積,還包括單詞的正確用法。一個單詞如果要正確地使用在文章中,就必須考慮其詞性、搭配、上下文語境等。
           
          如burden這個單詞,很多考生都會背到,但真正寫作時,卻又不知如何去用?想要表達“施加壓力”卻想不到該用的動詞。但如果在背誦時,我們直接記憶的是“pose a heavy burden on”, 那么在考試時,就可以直接用在文章中。再如behavior這個單詞,很多考生都認識,但是在作文中要表達學生“行為表現不良”,卻無從下手,但如果我們能掌握“exhibit undesirable behavior”這個詞組,那么在寫作時就能使用的得心應手。所以筆者建議考生在詞匯積累時,盡量多以短語為主:介賓短語、形容詞短語、名詞短語等,例如by means of; be conducive to; the packed-schedule of; financial value; a source of revenue等。
           
          同時,在詞組背誦的過程中,各位“烤鴨”可以將動賓結構的短語作為背誦的重點,因為在寫句子的時候,需要考慮到用什么時態、動詞是否及物、名詞是否可數等。而動賓短語卻可以幫助我們避免一些麻煩,更快地、更準確地表達我們的意思,我們要做的只是在其前面加上主語,注意下時態,即可以寫出一個正確的句子。
           
          比如“improve medical and educational service”, 直接加入主語government即可以成為一個完整的句子:The government should focus on improving medical and educational service.
           
          又如“have serious repercussion”, 直接加入主語“any increase”即可以成為一個完整的句子:Any decrease in tourism could have serious repercussions for the local economy.
           
          以下筆者列舉了一些比較實用的動賓結構短語,考生們可以作為參考:
           
          play equally important role in 在...中扮演同等重要的角色
           
          take advantage of 利用
           
          develop their potential to the fullest 完全開發他們的潛力
           
          make good use of 更好地利用
           
          be sure to do a good favor for... 當然對...有好處
           
          acquire skills of interacting with their peers 獲得與同輩人交往的技巧
           
          overly rely on computers 過度依賴電腦
           
          assume the responsibility of 承擔責任
           
          increasingly lower the risk of... 逐漸降低...的風險
           
          pursue their learning at an advanced level 追求更高層次的學習
           
          extricate people from an array of burdens 使人們從大量的壓力中解脫出來
           
          原則三:意群記憶優于零散記憶
           
          比如在討論“貧富差距擴大的影響”時,可以按照以下的意群,組合記憶:
           
          貧富懸殊擴大the widening disparity between the rich and the poor--兩極化,激化社會矛盾polarize community and intensify the social conflict--社會對立social incompatibility--心理問題induce psychological problem--仇富心理result in hatred for the wealthy--自卑心理suffer from inferior mentality--行為過激aggressive behaviour。
           
          比如在討論“個人如何解決環境問題”的論點時,同樣可以采取意群記憶的方法,將相關的詞匯、短語進行串聯記憶:
           
          減少不可循環物品的使用minimize the use of non-recyclable items--減少使用一次性用品reduce the consumption of disposable products--舉例:一次性筷子和飯盒disposable chopsticks and lunch boxes; 塑料袋plastic bags; 礦泉水瓶mineral-water bottles--減少不可降解的垃圾的數量到最低the amount of non-biodegradable waste will be reduced to the minimum。
           
          比如在討論“電腦游戲的壞處”時,可以從電腦游戲的現象入手,串聯起它的壞處,進行整體的記憶:
           
          沉醉于電腦游戲the indulgence in computer games--對人的健康有害detrimental effects on one’s well-being--分散了學生的注意力distract teenagers from their learning--對游戲上癮addicted to games--難以按時交作業difficult to meet the deadline of their assignment--注意力渙散和注意力不集中dilution of power of concentration and shortening of attention span。
           
          原則四:同義詞記憶優于單個詞匯記憶
           
          在雅思寫作的評分標準中,對于7分的詞匯定義是這樣的“Uses a sufficient range of vocabulary to allow some flexibility and precision”。其中的flexibility(靈活性)的最重要的一項要求就是同義詞的替換,這就要求考生們在背誦相關單詞時,不光要掌握一個單詞或詞組,還需要掌握其所對應的同義詞或詞組,這樣在文中需要重復表達同樣意思時,可以進行有效的替換,體現出詞匯的靈活性。當然最直觀的靈活性就體現在單詞、詞組的替換,如advertisement--commercials; starvation--famine; struggle for--aspire after--strive for--spare no efforts for等。但其實真正在文章寫作過程中,還存在另外一種替換。
           
          例如:
           
           
          Despite this, they have to participate in many extracurricular activities in order to become well-rounded and adapt to the competitive working world in the future.
           
          在上面的句子中participate in many extracurricular activities表示“參加課外活動”,而在下文表達相同意思的時候,將其替換成了“extracurricular involvement”。
           
          First of all, extracurricular involvement is a rewarding process in which students could integrate academic knowledge with practical experience.
           
          例如:
           
          We can find most of the increase is derived from new products, which are designed to satisfyconsumers’ growingly diversified preferences and needs.
           
          在該句中growingly diversified preferences and needs表示“日益增長的各種各樣的偏愛和需求”,而在下文作者換了一種表達,但其實表示的意思是一樣的。
           
          Well aware of consumers’ real demands for differentiated products, businesses have started customized services and launched meticulously-devised marketing strategies, all of which boost sales to a record high.
           
          所以從以上兩個例子可以看出,同義替換并不僅僅局限于同義詞的替換,相同的意思,換種表達也是同義替換的一種。
           
           
          優擇教育圓夢你出國第一個腳步
           
           
          不斷進步中的優擇已經幫助近1000名學生完成夢想的飛躍,超過96%的優擇學員,在學習三個月后,托福成績普遍提高21分,雅思提高1.5分,SAT提高289分!
           

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